Usage and Grammar

Q. How can I look up words like “illegal alien” or “lady” that are hurtful to the people described?

Q. This is sort of a dangler, and yet it seems OK: “As a captain, most of my duties are administrative.” I rewrote it to be safe, but is that kind of construction OK?

Q. I’m editing an advertising brochure that says, “With more cruise departures from more convenient ports, you’ll find an itinerary that’s just right for you.” A colleague asks, “More than what or whom? You should not use a comparative word like more without providing the comparison. More than other cruise lines offer? With more cruise departures from more convenient ports than other cruise lines offer?” Is this true or have we evolved a little in terms of ad copy?

Q. Is it redundant to write “and also”? I cannot find this issue (of redundancies) in the Manual. Is it there?

Q. Do you need to use two indefinite articles with coordinate nouns when one noun begins with a vowel sound and the other begins with a consonant sound? For example, “walking the halls of an elementary or [a] secondary school.” Is the a before secondary required? Would the same be true for coordinate adjectives? For example, “including a relatable and [an] encouraging teacher”? Is the an required?

Q. Hi there—I’m working on a brochure for a cruise line in which we are describing Mayan ruins and Mayan civilization. The client keeps changing Mayan to Maya, which looks strange to me outside the realm of academia. Does Chicago have a preference on this? Thanks!

Q. Lie down on your stomach or lay down on your stomach? suggests “lie down” is preferable to “lay down.” Please clarify.

Q. Help! Can you please tell me which is correct: “if one or more component is ineffective,” “if one or more components is ineffective,” or “if one or more components are ineffective.” The document I’m reviewing uses all three constructions, and I haven’t been able to find any solid guidance on which is correct.

Q. I’m having an argument with my English teachers over what I think is a grammatical mistake in Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story A Study in Scarlet. The sentence in question is: “The Daily News observed that there was no doubt as to the crime being a political one.” Since I’m fairly certain “being a political one” is a gerund and not a participial phrase, I think that crime should be changed to crime’s, but multiple English teachers have told me I am incorrect (yet the arguments they presented do not make sense to me whatsoever). Is the sentence correct as is, or did Doyle make a grammatical mistake?

Q. Hello, Chicago. I am slightly confused about what the difference between “compare with” and “compare to” is. Paragraph 5.195 seems to suggest that it’s a matter of whether one is making a “literal comparison” or a “poetic or metaphorical comparison,” whereas 5.250 says it’s a matter of whether one is identifying “both similarities and differences” or “primarily similarities.” What’s the rundown?