Citation, Documentation of Sources

Q. How do I introduce a quote in a research paper if I am going to say: Randolph states that “blah-blah-blah (Randolph 2002).” Would this be right, or can I just say: Randolph states that (if I put it in my own words) slavery was unethical (Randolph 2002). With no quotes? With quotes? HELP!

A. If you use Randolph’s exact words, then you must use quotation marks. Don’t put the citation inside the quote—after all, Randolph didn’t say “Randolph 2002.” If you use your own words, don’t use quotation marks. In either case, include the page number you're quoting from.

Randolph says, “Blah-blah-blah” (2002, 32).

Randolph (2002, 32) states that the blah was blah-blah.