Q. I’m wondering about the ampersand versus and in journal titles. There are two examples where Chicago uses and for a journal whose title online has an ampersand (Past and Present; Trends in Ecology and Evolution). Is it fair to extrapolate from these examples that Chicago would recommend replacing the ampersand in citations of journals?

A. It is. Since there is no easy way to check whether an author’s choices are random or scrupulous, conventionally editors have chosen one style or the other to impose throughout. Chicago prefers and. Even now that it’s possible to check online, we think it’s more expedient to choose one style and be consistent, given the amount of research it would entail to check the style of and in every title, not to mention the complication that a publication may itself use one style on its jacket or in a logo and another in running text.