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CITATION QUICK GUIDE

Author-Date: Sample Citations

 

The following examples illustrate the author-date style. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 18 and 19 of Turabian. (For examples of the same citations using the notes and bibliography system, go to Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations.)

BOOK

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Kitamura, Katie. 2017. A Separation. New York: Riverhead Books.

Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. 2017. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships. Oakland: University of California Press.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Kitamura 2017, 25)

(Sassler and Miller 2017, 114)

CHAPTER OR OTHER PART OF AN EDITED BOOK

In the reference list, include the page range for the chapter or part. In the text, cite specific pages.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY

Rowlandson, Mary. 2016. “The Narrative of My Captivity.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 19–56. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Rowlandson 2016, 19–20)

To cite an edited book as a whole, list the editor(s) first.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY

D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(D’Agata 2016, 19–20)

TRANSLATED BOOK

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY

Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Lahiri 2016, 146)

E-BOOK

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text or, if possible, track down a version with fixed page numbers.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. 1917. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

Schlosser, Eric. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ProQuest Ebrary.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Austen 2007, chap. 3)

(Dostoevsky 1917, 444)

(Schlosser 2001, 88)

THESIS OR DISSERTATION

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY

Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. 2016. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Navarro-Garcia 2016, 44)

JOURNAL ARTICLE

In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article. In the text, cite specific page numbers. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Pérez, Ashley Hope. 2017. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau.” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May): 872–98. https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

(LaSalle 2017, 95)

(Pérez 2017, 874)

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; in the text, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY

Weber, Jesse N., Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I. Erin, Natalie C. Steinel, Lei Ma, and Daniel I. Bolnick. 2017. “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite.” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January): 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1086/689597.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Weber et al. 2017, 45)

NEWS OR MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. In the reference list, it can be helpful to repeat the year with sources that are cited also by month and day. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Anderssen, Erin. 2016. “Through the Eyes of Generation Z.” Globe and Mail (Toronto), June 25, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/through-the-eyes-of-generation-z/article30571914/.

Cunningham, Vinson. 2017. “You Don’t Understand: John McWhorter Makes His Case for Black English.” New Yorker, May 15, 2017.

Lind, Dara. 2016. “Moving to Canada, Explained.” Vox, September 15, 2016. http://www.vox.com/2016/5/9/11608830/move-to-canada-how.

Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Anderssen 2016)

(Cunningham 2017, 85)

(Lind 2016)

(Manjoo 2017)

(Pegoraro 2007)

Readers’ comments are cited in the text but omitted from a reference list.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)

BOOK REVIEW

REFERENCE LIST ENTRY

Eberstadt, Fernanda. 2017. “Gone Guy: A Writer Leaves His Wife, Then Disappears in Greece.” Review of A Separation, by Katie Kitamura. New York Times, February 15, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/15/books/review/separation-katie-kitamura.html.

IN-TEXT CITATION

(Eberstadt 2017)

WEBSITE CONTENT

Web pages and other website content can be cited as shown here. For a source that does not list a date of publication, posting, or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Columbia University. n.d. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/content/history.html.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Columbia University, n.d.)

(Google 2017)

AUDIOVISUAL CONTENT

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Beyoncé. 2016. “Sorry.” Directed by Kahlil Joseph and Beyoncé Knowles. June 22, 2016. Music video, 4:25. https://youtu.be/QxsmWxxouIM.

Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Beyoncé 2016)

(Stamper 2017)

SOCIAL MEDIA CONTENT

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). If a more formal citation is needed or to include a link, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

TEXT

Sloane Crosley offers the following advice: “How to edit: Attack a sentence. Write in the margins. Toss in some arrows. Cross out words. Rewrite them. Circle the whole mess and STET” (@askanyone, Twitter, May 8, 2017).

REFERENCE LIST ENTRIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

(Souza 2016)

(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Personal interviews, correspondence, and other types of personal communications—including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media—are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)

(Interview with home health aide, July 31, 2017)