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Contents

  • A Note to Students
  • Preface
  • Part IResearch and Writing
  • Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams,
  • Joseph Bizup, and William T. Fitzgerald
  •  
  • 1What Research Is and How Researchers Think about It
  • 1.1What Research Is
  • 1.2How Researchers Think about Their Aims
  • 1.3Conversing with Your Readers
  • 2Defining a Project: Topic, Question, Problem, Working Hypothesis
  • 2.1Find a Question in Your Topic
  • 2.2Understanding Research Problems
  • 2.3Propose a Working Hypothesis
  • 2.4Build a Storyboard to Plan and Guide Your Work
  • 2.5Join or Organize a Writing Group
  • 3Finding Useful Sources
  • 3.1Three Kinds of Sources and Their Uses
  • 3.2Search for Sources Systematically
  • 3.3Evaluate Sources for Relevance and Reliability
  • 3.4Look beyond the Usual Kinds of References
  • 3.5Record Your Sources Fully, Accurately, and Appropriately
  • 4Engaging Your Sources
  • 4.1Read Generously to Understand, Then Critically to Engage
  • 4.2Take Notes Systematically
  • 4.3Take Useful Notes
  • 4.4Review Your Progress
  • 4.5Manage Moments of Normal Anxiety
  • 5Constructing Your Argument
  • 5.1What a Research Argument Is and Is Not
  • 5.2Build Your Argument around Answers to Readers’ Questions
  • 5.3Turn Your Working Hypothesis into a Claim
  • 5.4Assemble the Elements of Your Argument
  • 5.5Prefer Arguments Based on Evidence to Arguments Based on Warrants
  • 5.6Assemble an Argument
  • 6Planning a First Draft
  • 6.1Avoid Unhelpful Plans
  • 6.2Create a Plan That Meets Your Readers’ Needs
  • 6.3File Away Leftovers
  • 7Drafting Your Paper
  • 7.1Draft in the Way That Feels Most Comfortable
  • 7.2Develop Effective Writing Habits
  • 7.3Keep Yourself on Track through Headings and Key Terms
  • 7.4Quote, Paraphrase, and Summarize Appropriately
  • 7.5Integrate Quotations into Your Text
  • 7.6Use Footnotes and Endnotes Judiciously
  • 7.7Show How Complex or Detailed Evidence Is Relevant
  • 7.8Be Open to Surprises
  • 7.9Guard against Inadvertent Plagiarism
  • 7.10Guard against Inappropriate Assistance
  • 7.11Work Through Chronic Procrastination and Writer’s Block
  • 8Presenting Evidence in Tables and Figures
  • 8.1Choose Verbal or Visual Representations of Your Data
  • 8.2Choose the Most Effective Graphic
  • 8.3Design Tables and Figures
  • 8.4Communicate Data Ethically
  • 9Revising Your Draft
  • 9.1Check for Blind Spots in Your Argument
  • 9.2Check Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Claim
  • 9.3Make Sure the Body of Your Report Is Coherent
  • 9.4Check Your Paragraphs
  • 9.5Let Your Draft Cool, Then Paraphrase It
  • 10Writing Your Final Introduction and Conclusion
  • 10.1Draft Your Final Introduction
  • 10.2Draft Your Final Conclusion
  • 10.3Write Your Title Last
  • 11Revising Sentences
  • 11.1Focus on the First Seven or Eight Words of a Sentence
  • 11.2Diagnose What You Read
  • 11.3Choose the Right Word
  • 11.4Polish It Up
  • 11.5Give It Up and Turn It In
  • 12Learning from Comments on Your Paper
  • 12.1Two Kinds of Feedback: Advice and Data
  • 12.2Find General Principles in Specific Comments
  • 12.3Talk with Your Reader
  • 13Presenting Research in Alternative Forums
  • 13.1Plan Your Oral Presentation
  • 13.2Design Your Presentation to Be Listened To
  • 13.3Plan Your Poster Presentation
  • 13.4Plan Your Conference Proposal
  • 14On the Spirit of Research
  •  
  • Part IISource Citation
  • 15General Introduction to Citation Practices
  • 15.1Reasons for Citing Your Sources
  • 15.2The Requirements of Citation
  • 15.3Two Citation Styles
  • 15.4Electronic Sources
  • 15.5Preparation of Citations
  • 15.6Citation Management Tools
  • 16Notes-Bibliography Style: The Basic Form
  • 16.1Basic Patterns
  • 16.2Bibliographies
  • 16.3Notes
  • 16.4Short Forms for Notes
  • 17Notes-Bibliography Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources
  • 17.1Books
  • 17.2Journal Articles
  • 17.3Magazine Articles
  • 17.4Newspaper Articles
  • 17.5Websites, Blogs, and Social Media
  • 17.6Interviews and Personal Communications
  • 17.7Papers, Lectures, and Manuscript Collections
  • 17.8Older Works and Sacred Works
  • 17.9Reference Works and Secondary Citations
  • 17.10Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts
  • 17.11Public Documents
  • 18Author-Date Style: The Basic Form
  • 18.1Basic Patterns
  • 18.2Reference Lists
  • 18.3Parenthetical Citations
  • 19Author-Date Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources
  • 19.1Books
  • 19.2Journal Articles
  • 19.3Magazine Articles
  • 19.4Newspaper Articles
  • 19.5Websites, Blogs, and Social Media
  • 19.6Interviews and Personal Communications
  • 19.7Papers, Lectures, and Manuscript Collections
  • 19.8Older Works and Sacred Works
  • 19.9Reference Works and Secondary Citations
  • 19.10Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts
  • 19.11Public Documents
  •  
  • Part IIIStyle
  • 20Spelling
  • 20.1Plurals
  • 20.2Possessives
  • 20.3Compounds and Words Formed with Prefixes
  • 20.4Line Breaks
  • 21Punctuation
  • 21.1Periods
  • 21.2Commas
  • 21.3Semicolons
  • 21.4Colons
  • 21.5Question Marks
  • 21.6Exclamation Points
  • 21.7Hyphens and Dashes
  • 21.8Parentheses and Brackets
  • 21.9Slashes
  • 21.10Quotation Marks
  • 21.11Apostrophes
  • 21.12Multiple Punctuation Marks
  • 22Names, Special Terms, and Titles of Works
  • 22.1Names
  • 22.2Special Terms
  • 22.3Titles of Works
  • 23Numbers
  • 23.1Words or Numerals?
  • 23.2Plurals and Punctuation
  • 23.3Date Systems
  • 23.4Numbers Used outside the Text
  • 24Abbreviations
  • 24.1General Principles
  • 24.2Names and Titles
  • 24.3Geographical Terms
  • 24.4Time and Dates
  • 24.5Units of Measure
  • 24.6The Bible and Other Sacred Works
  • 24.7Abbreviations in Citations and Other Scholarly Contexts
  • 25Quotations
  • 25.1Quoting Accurately and Avoiding Plagiarism
  • 25.2Incorporating Quotations into Your Text
  • 25.3Modifying Quotations
  • 26Tables and Figures
  • 26.1General Issues
  • 26.2Tables
  • 26.3Figures
  •  
  • Appendix
  • Paper Format and Submission
  • A.1General Format Requirements
  • A.2Format Requirements for Specific Elements
  • A.3File Preparation and Submission Requirements
  • Bibliography
  • Authors
  • Index