Abbreviations

Q. I’m editing an army paper, and they put EVERYTHING in caps, which I reduce to lowercase when possible. Is the following okay, or do the spelled-out names get lowercased in such cases? “For analysis purposes, the Fatigue-Avoidance Scheduling Tool (FAST), based on the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue, and Task-Effectiveness (SAFTE) model. . . .”

Q. What if Turabian says to use periods with A.D. and B.C. but CMOS recommends no periods—when Turabian is the guide specified for a thesis?

Q. Hello. I’m editing this passage: “I liked not ever knowing when I was going to be UA’d, because in the beginning of my treatment it made me stay off the pills.” UA stands for “urinalysis.” Is it correct to include an apostrophe in “UA’d”? Would appreciate your help very much.

Q. I am surprised that you spell Ms (as in Ms Helen Jones) with a period (Ms. Helen Jones). Nothing is being abbreviated (as in Mr. or Mrs.). Our University Senate adopted plain Ms in its documents some time ago!

Q. Most people no longer use a typewriter and carbon paper when making a copy of a letter. Does that mean that “cc” should now be just “c”?

Q. As a graduate of the College at the University of Chicago, I received an A.B. degree in anthropology. I have traditionally listed my degree as “A.B. Anthropology, University of Chicago.” However, in preparing my résumé for inclusion in proposals, my employer wants to list it as “B.A. Anthropology, University of Chicago.” What is the correct format, or is there no difference?

Q. Should a noun that is represented by an acronym be initial capped upon first reference, e.g., ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) vs. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)? Also, would this noun be initial capped (sans acronym) throughout the rest of the document?

Q. Hello, another question from New Zealand. I am unsure as to the rules for spelling out what abbreviations stand for. In the passage I am proofreading, we refer to the DSD and the BPD, which stand for the design strategy document and the business process document, respectively. Am I right in thinking these should be lowercase when written in full?

Q. I am an elementary school teacher and am confronted with an abbreviation debate. How should the abbreviation of United States of America be taught? I am finding that it is acceptable in several forms, but I would like to be as accurate as possible.

Q. I am editing a book in which the author uses one acronym to refer to a term that can have two different endings. For example, BE would be used for “book editor” and “book editing.” Sample sentences: “BE is a complicated process. As a BE, one can make a million dollars.” How should I handle this? How would you spell out the acronym on first mention? (I am working on the second edition, and the use of the one acronym was accepted for the first edition.)