CMOS FAQ Questions http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/ Latest CMOS FAQ Questions with links to the answers en-us Tue, 28 Mar 2017 05:00:00 GMT 60 http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Numbers/faq0043.html Q. Is there a correct way to write a range of only two numbers in a complete sentence? For example, June 3–4, or June 3 and 4? Pages 75–76, or pages 75 and 76? The issue gets especially ugly when referring to multiple numbers. For example, “The event will take place Nov. 3 and 4, 8 and 9, 15 and 16, and 21 and 22.” Yuck. I say that for ease of reading, an en dash would be used. However, I know that according to CMOS, an en dash between two numbers implies “up to and including,” or “through.” With that in mind, should “and” be used, because no number comes between the two numbers that are cited? Or is that overthinking things?&nbsp; <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>Is there a correct way to write a range of only two numbers in a complete sentence? For example, June 3&ndash;4, or June 3 and 4? Pages 75&ndash;76, or pages 75 and 76? The issue gets especially ugly when referring to multiple numbers. For example, &ldquo;The event will take place Nov. 3 and 4, 8 and 9, 15 and 16, and 21 and 22.&rdquo; Yuck. I say that for ease of reading, an en dash would be used. However, I know that according to <em>CMOS</em>, an en dash between two numbers implies &ldquo;up to and including,&rdquo; or &ldquo;through.&rdquo; With that in mind, should &ldquo;and&rdquo; be used, because no number comes between the two numbers that are cited? Or is that overthinking things?&nbsp;</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:48:51 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Usage/faq0315.html Q. To avoid gender-specific language, is it acceptable to use “upperclass students” as an alternative to “upperclassmen”? I am seeing this more and more in academia, where I work. An alternative would be “upper-class students,” but that seems to refer to those from a higher social and economic class. What do you recommend? <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>To avoid gender-specific language, is it acceptable to use &ldquo;upperclass students&rdquo; as an alternative to &ldquo;upperclassmen&rdquo;? I am seeing this more and more in academia, where I work. An alternative would be &ldquo;upper-class students,&rdquo; but that seems to refer to those from a higher social and economic class. What do you recommend?</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:47:53 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/ManuscriptPreparation/faq0180.html Q. How many times does it take for a foreign word to become familiar in a document? And does distance between occurrences matter? In reference to CMOS&nbsp;7.49: “If a foreign word becomes familiar through repeated use throughout a work, it need be italicized only on its first occurrence. If it appears only rarely, however, italics may be retained.” This novel I’m working on has tons of foreign words in the dialogue that vary all over the place in frequency. <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>How many times does it take for a foreign word to become familiar in a document? And does distance between occurrences matter? In reference to <em>CMOS&nbsp;</em>7.49: &ldquo;If a foreign word becomes familiar through repeated use throughout a work, it need be italicized only on its first occurrence. If it appears only rarely, however, italics may be retained.&rdquo; This novel I&rsquo;m working on has tons of foreign words in the dialogue that vary all over the place in frequency.</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:44:59 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Quotations/faq0058.html Q. I disagree with the following: The runner noted that, “This course is very difficult.” Better: The runner noted that “this course is very difficult.” Why the comma in the first example? Why uppercase the “T”? Do you agree with me? <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>I disagree with the following: The runner noted that, &ldquo;This course is very difficult.&rdquo; Better: The runner noted that &ldquo;this course is very difficult.&rdquo; Why the comma in the first example? Why uppercase the &ldquo;T&rdquo;? Do you agree with me?</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:44:04 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Punctuation/faq0112.html Q. Is a question mark called for in the following sentence? “I wonder when it will stop raining.” I believe that it is a statement and therefore a period is the required punctuation, but I see similar sentences with a question mark so often. <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>Is a question mark called for in the following sentence? &ldquo;I wonder when it will stop raining.&rdquo; I believe that it is a statement and therefore a period is the required punctuation, but I see similar sentences with a question mark so often.</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:42:50 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Documentation/faq0311.html Q. Titles of works should be italicized, but on social media sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram) text cannot be formatted. In social posts, is it best to leave titles of works Roman? Or do you recommend another way to designate titles of works using only plain text? <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>Titles of works should be italicized, but on social media sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram) text cannot be formatted. In social posts, is it best to leave titles of works Roman? Or do you recommend another way to designate titles of works using only plain text?</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:41:46 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Usage/faq0314.html Q. The following parenthetical sentence was in the introduction relating to your 20th anniversary in the February Style Q&A: “Note that some styles have shifted slightly since then.” What is your view of not using the word that in cases similar to your sentence? The word that can be deleted without changing the meaning, or in my view, without making the meaning harder to understand. It can be deleted from almost every use when it follows a verb. Would you agree adding a comma after Note and then deleting that would be clear to the reader? <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>The following parenthetical sentence was in the introduction relating to your 20th anniversary in the February Style Q&amp;A: &ldquo;Note that some styles have shifted slightly since then.&rdquo; What is your view of not using the word <em>that</em> in cases similar to your sentence? The word <em>that</em> can be deleted without changing the meaning, or in my view, without making the meaning harder to understand. It can be deleted from almost every use when it follows a verb. Would you agree adding a comma after <em>Note</em> and then deleting <em>that</em> would be clear to the reader?</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:40:18 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Usage/faq0313.html Q. It’s long-standing software jargon to “save to disk” or “save to file.” Recently I’m seeing “save to list,” “save to album,” and other “save to” constructions in user interfaces and other places where I would use “save in” or other prepositions. Where can I get advice on whether the “save to” construction is idiomatic outside my industry? <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>It&rsquo;s long-standing software jargon to &ldquo;save to disk&rdquo; or &ldquo;save to file.&rdquo; Recently I&rsquo;m seeing &ldquo;save to list,&rdquo; &ldquo;save to album,&rdquo; and other &ldquo;save to&rdquo; constructions in user interfaces and other places where I would use &ldquo;save in&rdquo; or other prepositions. Where can I get advice on whether the &ldquo;save to&rdquo; construction is idiomatic outside my industry?</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:29:57 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Documentation/faq0310.html Q. I am editing a series of essays (18th century to present) that have been translated from the French and, later in the series, from other languages. Naturally, word meanings have changed over time. Also, English words and French words, for example, might come from the same root but do not have the same meaning—even in the same century. The translator’s notes on language are copious. He has been numbering them as footnotes, but CMOS says they should be asterisks, not numbers. If there are more than three translator’s notes per page (a quick review shows 8 on some pages), the number of asterisks will be unwieldy. Please advise! <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>I am editing a series of essays (18th century to present) that have been translated from the French and, later in the series, from other languages. Naturally, word meanings have changed over time. Also, English words and French words, for example, might come from the same root but do not have the same meaning&mdash;even in the same century. The translator&rsquo;s notes on language are copious. He has been numbering them as footnotes, but <em>CMOS</em> says they should be asterisks, not numbers. If there are more than three translator&rsquo;s notes per page (a quick review shows 8 on some pages), the number of asterisks will be unwieldy. Please advise!</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:24:35 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/HyphensEnDashesEmDashes/faq0116.html Q. Does half need a hyphen when modifying a verb? For example, “He half listened to her story” or “She half walked, half ran.” <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>Does <em>half</em> need a hyphen when modifying a verb? For example, &ldquo;He half listened to her story&rdquo; or &ldquo;She half walked, half ran.&rdquo;</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:23:26 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/PossessivesandAttributives/faq0049.html Q. This question has probably been asked before, but at work we are updating the human resources manual and nobody seems to know the answer. Is the apostrophe necessary in “two weeks’ notice” and “three days’ sick leave”? We will really appreciate your advice. <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>This question has probably been asked before, but at work we are updating the human resources manual and nobody seems to know the answer. Is the apostrophe necessary in &ldquo;two weeks&rsquo; notice&rdquo; and &ldquo;three days&rsquo; sick leave&rdquo;? We will really appreciate your advice.</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:22:14 GMT http://chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/NoneoftheAbove/faq0037.html Q. Dear CMOS: Your Q&A answers are like haiku. I cannot help but admire such clear, concise, compassionate responses. Nor can I resist sending fan mail where you must expect a question. Fondly, An Admirer <p class="Q"><span class="Q_label">Q. </span>Dear <em>CMOS</em>:</p> <p class="Q">Your Q&amp;A answers are like haiku. I cannot help but admire such clear, concise, compassionate responses. Nor can I resist sending fan mail where you must expect a question.</p> <p class="Q">Fondly,<br /> An Admirer</p> Tue, 07 Mar 2017 20:19:26 GMT