Citation, Documentation of Sources

Q. My author is citing biblical scripture references in the text, but using footnotes for all other citations. It is important to him to keep the scripture references in the text. My question: should he also cite them in the footnotes, for consistency? That is, should all citations be either only in the text or only in the notes? This is a scholarly work.

A. There’s no need for all citations to be in the same place. When a source can be easily integrated into the text (“We read in Psalm 42:8 that . . .”), it makes sense to do so for the convenience of the reader. And there is no reason to repeat in a note a source that has just been mentioned in the text. Many scholarly books have endnotes (for full citations), footnotes (for discursive asides and some citations), and in-text citations (for short references). Please have a look at the overview of CMOS’s documentation chapter at 14.1–3.