Documentation

Q. I have searched for the answer to this question but have not found it discussed in your text. I am writing a dissertation in the social sciences. I cite to references in parentheses in the text in the format (Smith 1999) with full citations contained in a bibliography. I sometimes cite to the same reference a few sentences later. I am wondering if I can use the abbreviation (ibid.) instead of repeating the exact same citation (Smith 1999)?

A. Chicago considers an in-text parenthetical author-date citation to already be in a short form and therefore discourages “ibid.” as a substitute. If you must use “ibid.,” just be careful that no intervening sources creep into the text. It does mean “in the same place [as the last item cited],” but it requires that the reader see or recall the last source, an inconvenience we feel outweighs the minor space gain.