Q. I write professional resumes, and I have a question about the use of a comma in a sentence with including. My proofer has begun inserting a comma prior to including followed by a list: “Managed a variety of projects, including joint, combined, and contingency exercises.” Should this comma be omitted?
Q. If you write “In the opening of Raymond Chandler’s 1940 novel Farewell, My Lovely . . . ,” ought there to be a comma after novel, as it was his only novel published that year and so what follows is a nonrestrictive appositive? Or does that seem too clunky?
Q. An author of an article I am copyediting asked me to restore the commas I had deleted in the following sentence: “Most of my nightmares are a process of working out a deeper objectivity about, and unity with, what God would have me do.” I do not mind the two commas in this sentence, although I prefer it without. However, I know the proofreader will object. Can you refer me to a rule I can cite to get either the author or the proofreader to back down?
Q. I have noticed in e-mails that people who want to be informal begin with “Hi Fred.” I have also seen the salutation as “Hi, Fred.” Since e-mail is an electronic letter, is it OK to simply begin with “Hi Fred,”? The other way seems a bit awkward.
Q. Must a comma always precede the phrase “such as”? If not, what is the rule for when there should be a comma?
Q. I’ve got a run-in list in which one of the items is a quoted question. The author put the comma after the closing quotation mark, which looks odd, but so does no comma at all. Any suggestions? The sentence: She can ask herself, “Why?”, formulate her own response, and see which option it closely matches.
Q. My editor and I disagree about comma placement in this sentence. I added the comma, but he says it’s not necessary. Your opinion, please? “The screen design includes functional elements like text-entry boxes and list boxes, and stylistic elements like graphics and multimedia.” Thanks!
Q. Some editors at my office believe the word so should always have a comma after it when it begins a sentence. (“I am a clumsy person. So, I try not to wear white on days when I will drink coffee.”) I believe so should be treated like and or but; they think it should be treated like thus. Yet they don’t use the comma if the clause is in the second half of a sentence. Is the comma optional, never allowed, or allowed only in certain situations?
Q. Your opinion, please, of the comma in this sentence: “The difference, is affiance.” It is a commercial tagline, so all bets may be off, but one of us has the nagging feeling that there may be a reason for that comma buried in grammar rules of yore. Another of us wondered if the construction is related to “What it is, is football.” Both of us hope you can help sort things out.
Q. Prepositional phrases beginning sentences. No longer followed by a comma?