15th EditionAppendix A: Design and Production—Basic Procedures and Key Terms

A1   A2   A3   A4   A5   A6   A7   A8   A9   A Key Terms

Key Terms

AA. An abbreviation for author’s alteration. See also alteration.

acid-free paper. Paper having a pH of 7, or close to 7. Acid-free paper deteriorates at a much slower rate than paper with a lower pH, giving publications printed on it a longer life expectancy. See also pH.

adhesive binding. A method of binding that employs glue instead of stitching to hold the pages or signatures together and is widely used for journals and paperback books. Three types of adhesive binding are currently used: perfect binding, notch binding, and burst binding. Contrast case binding; flexibinding.

alteration. A change from the manuscript copy introduced in proof, as distinguished from a correction made to eliminate a printers error. See also AA; DA; EA.

arabic numerals. The familiar digits used in arithmetical computation. In many type fonts they are available in two forms: lining, or aligning (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0), and old style , abbreviated OS and characterized by ascenders and descenders. Contrast roman numerals.

artwork. Illustrative material (photographs, drawings, maps, and so forth) intended for reproduction.

ascender. The portion of a lowercase letter that extends above the x-height, as in b and d. Contrast descender.

ASCII file. See text file.

back margin. The inner margin of a page; that is, the margin along the binding side of the page. See also gutter.

baseline. In type, an imaginary common line that all capital letters, x-heights, arabic numerals, and ascenders rest on. See also x-height.

basis weight. The weight in pounds of a ream (five hundred sheets) of paper cut to a standard size (25 × 38 inches for book papers). Book papers generally range from forty to eighty pounds. See also grammage.

beta testing. The final checking of a computer application (such as a Web site) before it is released. Such testing is ideally carried out under normal operating conditions by users who are not directly involved in developing the application.

binding. (1) A covering for the pages of a publication, using such materials as leather, cloth, and paper. (2) The process by which such a covering is attached. See also adhesive binding; case binding.

binding cloth. Cloth (usually cotton or rayon) for use in book covers that has been sized, glazed, or impregnated with synthetic resins and is available in a large variety of weights, finishes, colors, and patterns.

bitmap. A digital representation of an image consisting of an array of pixels, in rows and columns, that can be saved to a file. Each pixel in the grid of the bitmap contains information about the color value of its position, which is used, for example, to display an image on a monitor or print it to a page.

blanket. In offset printing, the resilient rubber covering of the blanket cylinder, which receives the ink impression from the plate cylinder and offsets it onto the paper.

bleed. To run an illustration or ink coverage beyond the edge of the paper (or off the page).

blind embossing. See embossing.

blind folio. See folio.

blind stamping. See stamping.

block quotation. Quoted material set off typographically from the text (see 11.11). Also called extract. Contrast run in.

bluelines. An abbreviation for blueline proof; also called blues or (in Europe and Asia) ozalids. A type of photographic proof generated by a printing firm either from repro or from the typesetters electronic files. Bluelines should reflect all the changes made in the galley and page proof stages and should be checked for completeness and placement of material but not for color or quality of type. See also digital proof.

boards. Stiffening material used in binding to form the foundation of the cover; formerly wood, now generally a paper product such as binders board (the finest quality), pasted board (often used in case binding), or chipboard (low quality). Redboard is used for flexible bindings. The bare board is sheathed in one of a variety of cover materials.

body type. Type used for the running text of a work, as distinguished from the display type used for chapter openings, subheads, and so forth.

boldface. Type that has a darker and heavier appearance than standard type (as in the entries in this list of key terms).

book paper. Paper made principally for the manufacture of books, journals, and magazines, as distinguished from newsprint and from writing and cover stock. Book paper is usually wood-free.

broadside. Designed to be read or viewed normally when the publication is turned ninety degrees. In University of Chicago Press practice, the left side of a broadside table or illustration is at the bottom of the page. Because most publications are longer than they are wide, broadside images are usually landscape, but not all landscape images are broadside. See also landscape.

bulk. The thickness of paper measured in number of pages per inch; also used loosely to indicate the thickness of a publication, excluding the cover.

burst binding. A type of adhesive binding in which the untrimmed spine is perforated and force-fed with glue.

camera-ready copy (CRC). Artwork and text that are ready to be photographed for reproduction without further alteration.

caps. An abbreviation for capital letters. See also small caps.

case. A hard cover or binding made by a casemaking machine or by hand and usually printed, stamped, or labeled before being glued to the gathered signatures. A case that is covered entirely by one type of material is a one-piece case; a case in which the spine is covered by one type of material and the front and back cover boards by another (often in a different color) is a three-piece case.

case binding. A method of encasing a book in a rigid cover, or case. The gathered signatures can be Smyth sewn or side sewn together or adhesive bound; endpapers are glued to the first and last signatures; a hinge of heavy gauze (the super) is glued to the spine of the sewn signatures; and the case is secured to the book by being glued to the flaps of the super and to both endpapers. Contrast adhesive binding; flexibinding.

castoff. An estimate of the space, or number of printed pages, that a manuscript will occupy when typeset.

CD-ROM. An abbreviation for compact disc read-only memory. A type of compact disc used for storing digital data that can be read optically and processed by a computer. The storage capacity of CD-ROMs is about 700 megabytes. See also DVD.

character. A letter, numeral, symbol, or mark of punctuation.

character count. An approximate measure of the length of a manuscript made by multiplying the number of characters and spaces in an average line by the number of lines in the manuscript. The character count feature of many word-processing programs can also provide such a total. See also copyfitting.

clothbound. Bound with a rigid cover, usually cloth wrapped around boards. Contrast paperback.

CMYK. An abbreviation for the basic colors used in process color printing—cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y), plus black (K)—to approximate all the colors in the spectrum.

code. A generic marker that identifies a particular type of text throughout a manuscript. A code is usually associated with a set of formatting instructions specified by the designer and followed by the typesetter. See also tag.

colophon. A statement, usually at the back of a publication (as in this manual), about the materials, processes, and individuals or companies involved in its preparation, production, and manufacturing.

color printing. See process color printing; spot color printing.

color separation. (1) The analysis of color copy for reproduction in terms of the three process colors (plus black) to be used in printing; separation is achieved by shooting through filters or by electronic scanning. (2) A film negative or positive, or a digital file, so produced for preparation of the printing plate. See also process color printing.

comp. An abbreviation for comprehensive layout, as for a dust jacket, and also for composition or compositor.

composition. Typesetting.

computer-to-plate (CTP) technology. A process in which a typesetters electronic files are imposed directly onto offset printing plates, thus eliminating the need for an intermediate stage involving film. See also digital proof.

contact proof. A photographic proof used to show the reproduction quality of an image. Also called velox.

continuous tone. An image, such as a photograph, with gradations of tone from dark to light, in contrast to an image formed of pure blacks and whites, such as a pen-and-ink drawing. See also halftone.

copyfitting. Estimating the space required to print a given quantity of copy in a desired type size or the quantity of manuscript that, when printed, will fill a given space. The former is also called casting off copy. See also character count.

cover. The two hinged parts of a binding, front and back, and the center panel, or spine, that joins them; also the four surfaces making up the covers in this sense, when used to carry printed matter. See also dust jacket.

crop. To cut down an illustration, such as a photograph, to improve the appearance of the image by removing extraneous areas.

cyan. A greenish blue, one of the three colors (plus black) used in process color printing.

DA. An abbreviation for designer’s alteration. See also alteration.

descender. The portion of a lowercase letter that extends below the x-height, as in g and p. Contrast ascender.

descreen. To remove evidence of the original halftone screen pattern in a previously printed image using software or mechanical filters. If such an image is not descreened before a new halftone screen is added, the printed version may include visually disruptive patterns called moirés.

die. See stamping.

digital. Transmitted or stored in an electronic format consisting of a sequence of discrete bits (0s and 1s), as with data such as text and images.

digital printing. A type of printing in which the transfer of electronic images to paper is accomplished with ink-jet or laser printers. Contrast offset printing.

digital proof. (1) In general, a type of proof generated directly from electronic files and output on a laser printer or other device. (2) A subset of the type above that takes the place of traditional bluelines and should reflect all the changes made in the galley and page proof stages; it should be checked for completeness and placement of material but not for color or quality of type. See also bluelines.

disk-to-film (DTF) technology. A process in which film negatives or positives are imposed from a typesetters electronic files, eliminating the need for repro and the manual assembly of negatives from single pages of film.

display type. Type that is larger than or otherwise distinguished from body type and is used for title pages, chapter openings, subheads, and so on.

dpi. An abbreviation for dots per inch. A measurement of the resolution of a printed image. The term is also used to describe the maximum resolution of an output device (as in a 1,200-dpi printer).

drop cap. An uppercase character set in a type size larger than the text and dropped, or nested, into lines of text, usually as the first character in the opening paragraph of a chapter or other section of text.

drop folio. See folio.

dropout halftone. A halftone in which the highlights have been whitened by removing all dots. Also called highlight halftone.

DTD. An abbreviation for document type definition. In SGML or XML, a set of rules about the structure of a document that dictate the relationship among different tags and allowable text or elements within specified tags. See also tag.

dummy. A mock-up of a publication (or part of a publication) intended to suggest the appearance and size of the completed work. Individuals involved in various phases of production may make different kinds of dummies to serve their purposes. (1) A designers dummy usually consists of galley proofs and FPOs cut and pasted to show the relation between text and illustrations. (2) A printers dummy consists of the specified paper and binding materials assembled to show the exact bulk and spine width of the publication.

dummy folio. See folio.

duotone. A halftone reproduction consisting of two tones, whether (1) two intensities of the same color, (2) black and a color, (3) black and gray, or (4) two colors other than black.

dust jacket. Also called jacket. A protective wrapping, usually made of paper, for a clothbound book; its flaps, which fold around the front and back covers, usually carry promotional copy. See also cover.

DVD. An abbreviation for digital versatile (or video) disc. A type of compact disc that can store up to seventeen gigabytes of digital video, audio, or computer data. See also CD-ROM.

EA. An abbreviation for editor’s alteration. See also alteration.

ECF paper. An abbreviation for elemental chlorine-free. Paper bleached with a chlorine derivative that releases hazardous substances, including dioxin, into the environment. Contrast TCF paper.

edition. (1) A publication in its original form, and each subsequent reissue of the publication in which its content is significantly revised. (2) More informally, a term used to refer to each format in which a publication appears (for example, a book published in both cloth and paperback bindings, or a journal published in both electronic and print forms). However, the designation second edition would not be applied to the secondary format, or to a second or subsequent impression of the publication, in the absence of significant content changes. See also 1.22; impression; reprint.

em. A unit of type measurement equal to the point size of the type in question; for example, a six-point em is six points wide. See also point.

embossing. Forming an image in relief (that is, a raised image) on a surface such as a case or a paper cover or dust jacket. If the process does not involve metallic leaf or ink, it is called blind embossing. See also stamping.

em dash. A short typographical rule measuring the width of an em. See also 6.87–94.

en. A unit of type measurement half the size of an em.

en dash. A short typographical rule measuring the width of an en. See also 6.83–86.

endpapers. Folded sheets pasted or, rarely, sewn to the first and last signatures of a book; the free leaves are then pasted to the inside of the front and back covers to secure the book within the covers. Sometimes endpapers feature printed text or illustrations. Also called endsheets.

entity reference. A series of characters representing a single character, usually a letter with a diacritical mark (such as é for é) or a symbol (such as £ for £).

EPS file. An abbreviation for Encapsulated PostScript file. A type of file used to encode graphics so they can be embedded in a larger PostScript file.

extract. See block quotation.

F&Gs. See folded and gathered sheets.

figure. An illustration printed with the text (hence also called a text figure), as distinguished from a plate, which is printed separately.

file. A block of digital information with a unique name and location in a computer system or external storage medium (such as a disk) that can be accessed and manipulated by users of the system or by the system itself. Programs, documents, and images are all examples of data stored in files.

film laminate. A plastic film bonded to a dust jacket or a paperback cover to protect the surface.

finish. The character of the surface of paper, usually described in terms of smoothness and opacity.

flaps. See dust jacket.

flexibinding. Also called limpbinding. A method of binding in which the pages or signatures are sewn together and the cover (sometimes with flaps) is then affixed, as in adhesive binding. The result is a publication that is lighter and less bulky than a casebound book but sturdier and more flexible than an adhesive-bound paperback. Contrast adhesive binding; case binding.

flopped. Erroneously inverted, as with a photograph, so that a mirror image of the original is produced.

flush. Even, as with typeset margins. Lines that are set flush left are aligned vertically along the left-hand margin; lines set flush right are aligned along the right-hand margin. Contrast ragged right.

flush-and-hang style. A copy-setting style in which the first line begins flush left and subsequent, or runover, lines are indented (as in this list of key terms). Also referred to as hanging indention or hanging indent.

folded and gathered sheets. Also called F&Gs or sheets. The collection of all printed signatures in a publication, folded into proper page sequence and gathered for binding. See also imposition; signature.

folio. A page number, often placed at the outside of the running head at the top of the page. If it is placed consistently at the bottom of the page, the number is a foot folio; if it is placed at the bottom of the page on display pages only, it is a drop folio. A folio counted in numbering pages but not printed (as on the title page) is a blind folio or dummy folio; any folio printed is an expressed folio.

font. A complete assortment of a given size and style of type, usually including capitals, small capitals, and lowercase together with numerals, punctuation marks, ligatures, and the commonly used symbols and accents. The italic of a typeface is considered a part of the equipment of a font of type but is often spoken of as a separate font. See also typeface.

foot folio. See folio.

fore edge. The trimmed outer edge of the leaves of a publication. The outer margin of a page is called the fore-edge margin.

form. In offset printing, all the pages that print together on one side of a sheet.

format. The shape, size, style, and general appearance of a publication as determined by type, margins, and so forth.

four-color process. See process color printing.

FPO. An abbreviation for for placement only. A copy of a graphic element used as a placeholder in proof.

FTP. An abbreviation for file transfer protocol. The protocol, or set of instructions and syntax, for moving files between computers on the Internet.

gallery. A section of illustrations grouped on consecutive pages rather than scattered throughout the text.

galley proof. Proof showing typeset material that has not yet been paginated, with text usually set in continuous columns. See also page proof.

grammage. In the metric system for specifying the basis weight of paper, the weight in grams of one square meter of paper (that is, grams per square meter, or gsm). See also basis weight.

gutter. The two inner margins (back margins) of facing pages of a book or journal.

hair space. A very small space—variously defined as one-quarter point, one-half point, or one-fifth of an em—added between characters. See also thin space.

halftone. An image formed by breaking up a continuous-tone image, such as a photograph, into a pattern of dots of varying sizes. When printed, the dots, though clearly visible through a magnifying glass, merge to give an illusion of continuous tone to the naked eye. See also dropout halftone; duotone.

halftone screen. A grid used in the halftone process to break an image up into dots. The fineness of the screen is denoted in terms of lines per inch, as in a 133-line screen.

H&J. An abbreviation for hyphenation and justification, a stage in typesetting. See also justified.

hanging indention. See flush-and-hang style.

hard copy. A paper copy of text, artwork, or other material, as opposed to a copy that has been stored in digital form.

headband. A decorative band at the top (and usually also the bottom) of the spine of a clothbound book, originally intended to take the strain of a persons finger pulling a book from a shelf.

head margin. The top margin of a page.

HTML. An abbreviation for HyperText Markup Language. A specific set of tags used to describe the structure of hypertext documents that make up most Web pages. Web browsers interpret these tags to display the text and graphics on a Web page. HTML is an application of SGML.

hypertext. The organization of digital information into associations connected by links. In a hypertext environment, objects such as text and images can contain links to other objects in the same file or in external files, which users can choose to follow. See also HTML.

imposition. Arranging pages before printing so that, when the resulting press sheets are printed and folded, the pages will be in the proper order. See also press sheet; signature.

impression. (1) The inked image on the paper created during a single cycle of a press; the speed of a sheet-fed printing press is given in terms of impressions per hour. (2) A single printing of a publication; that is, all the copies printed at a given time. See also 1.22; edition; reprint.

indent. To set a line of type so that it begins or ends inside the normal margin. In paragraph indention the first line is indented from the left margin and the following lines are set full measure. In hanging indention (also referred to as flush and hang) the first line is set full measure and the following lines are indented.

Internet. A global, public network of computers and computer networks that communicate using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). The Internet is used for such applications as electronic mail and the World Wide Web.

italic. Slanted type suggestive of cursive writing (like this). Contrast roman.

jacket. See dust jacket.

justified. Spaced out to a specified measure, as with printed lines, so that both margins are aligned. Contrast ragged right.

kern. The part of a letter that extends beyond the edge of the type body and overlaps the adjacent character, as the j in adjacent or the T in To.

kerning. The selective adjustment of space between particular characters to improve appearance or ease of reading. See also letterspacing.

keyline. Copy for offset reproduction showing the placement of artwork and type as well as instructions regarding color. Also called a mechanical.

landscape. Having a greater dimension in width than in length, as with an image or a publication. Contrast portrait; see also broadside.

layout. A designers plan of how the published material, including illustrative content, should appear.

leading. Also called line spacing. The visual space between lines of type, usually measured in points from baseline to baseline. This word, derived from the element lead, rhymes with heading.

letterspacing. The consistent adjustment of space between letters in a block of copy to improve appearance or ease of reading, as in display lines. See also kerning.

ligature. A single character formed by joining two characters, such as œ, fi, , and so forth. Older, more decorative forms (such as ) are known as quaint characters.

line art. Copy for reproduction that contains only solid blacks and whites, such as a pen-and-ink drawing. Contrast continuous tone.

line spacing. See leading.

lining figures. See under arabic numerals.

lowercase. The uncapitalized letters of a font. Contrast uppercase.

macro. A sequence of operations that is saved for reuse in a software application. For example, a macro can be used to perform the steps to clean up a manuscript file in a word-processing application.

magenta. A bluish red, one of the three colors (plus black) used in process color printing.

makeready. A series of operations performed by the printing firm to ensure that all parts of a form print evenly and that binding operations are done correctly, with folds straight and signatures in proper order.

makeup. Arranging of type lines and illustrations into page form.

margin. The white space surrounding the printed area of a page, including the back, or gutter, margin; the head, or top, margin; the fore-edge, or outside, margin; and the tail, foot, or bottom, margin. Contrast type page.

markup. (1) A sequence of characters, often called tags or codes, that indicate the logical structure of a manuscript or provide instructions for formatting it. (2) The insertion of such tags in an electronic manuscript; also, traditionally, editing and coding a paper manuscript.

measure. The length of the line (usually in picas) in which type is set. Full measure refers to copy set the full width of the type page. Narrow measure refers to a block of copy (such as a long quotation) indented from one or both margins to distinguish it from surrounding full-measure copy, or to copy set in short lines for multicolumn makeup.

mechanical. See keyline.

metadata. Data about data. The metadata for a given publication may include, among other things, copyright information, an ISBN or ISSN, and a volume or issue number.

moiré. In printing, an undesirable wavy pattern caused by poor screen angles in an image that has not been properly descreened. See also descreen; halftone screen.

negative. (1) A photographic image in which light values are reversed (that is, black appears as white). (2) Film used in offset printing.

notch binding. A type of adhesive binding in which the untrimmed spine is notched and force-fed with glue.

numerals. See arabic numerals; roman numerals.

OCR. An abbreviation for optical character recognition. A technology that converts images of text into character data that can be manipulated like any other digital text.

offprint. An article, chapter, or other excerpt from a larger work printed from the original plates and issued as a separate unit.

offset printing. Also called offset lithography. The most common type of printing used for books and journals. The pages to be printed are transferred either photographically or through computer-to-plate technology to a thin, flexible metal plate, curved to fit one of the revolving cylinders of the printing press. The image on this plate is then transferred to, or offset onto, the paper by means of a rubber blanket on another cylinder. Contrast digital printing.

old style figures. See under arabic numerals.

opacity. The measurement of transparency of paper. The higher a papers opacity, the less tendency there is for text and images printed on one side of a sheet to show through to the other side.

orphan. A short line appearing at the bottom of a page, or a word or part of a word appearing on a line by itself at the end of a paragraph. Orphans can be avoided by changes in wording or spacing that either remove the line or lengthen it. Contrast widow.

out of register. See register.

overlay. A hinged flap of paper or transparent plastic covering a piece of artwork. It may be there merely to protect the work, or it may bear type or other artwork intended for reproduction along with what lies underneath.

overrun. A quantity of printed material beyond what was ordered.

page. One side of a leaf, or sheet, of paper. See also type page.

page proof. Proof showing typeset material that has been paginated to reflect the placement of text, illustrations, and other design elements. Some publications may require one or more stages of revised page proof for checking corrections.

paperback. Bound with a cover stock rather than a cloth-and-board cover. Also called paperbound. Contrast clothbound.

PDF. An abbreviation for Portable Document Format. An Adobe file format to which a PostScript file can be converted without loss of fonts, formatting, or graphics. This format is preferable to PostScript in certain situations because it allows some editing, compresses the amount of memory needed for the graphics, and is more uniform, causing fewer problems at the printer. See also PostScript (PS).

PE. An abbreviation for printer’s error. See also printer’s error.

penalty copy. Copy difficult to compose (heavily corrected, faint, in a foreign language, and so forth) for which the typesetter charges more than the regular rate.

perfect binding. A type of adhesive binding that involves mechanically roughening off about an eighth of an inch from the spine of the folded and gathered sheets. This treatment produces a surface of intermingled fibers to which an adhesive is applied, and a cover (usually paper) is wrapped around the pages.

perfector press. A press designed to print both sides of the paper in one pass. Also called perfecting press.

pH. A designation, on a scale of 0 to 14, of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance: pH 7 is neutral; lower numbers are progressively acidic, and higher numbers progressively alkaline. Paper with a pH value of 7 is desirable for any artwork or printed matter intended to have a long life.

pica. A unit of type measurement equal to twelve points (approximately one-sixth of an inch).

pica em. A twelve-point em.

pixel. The basic unit that constitutes a digital image. Each pixel contains black and white, grayscale, or color information about the square it represents. See also resolution.

plate. (1) An image-bearing surface that, when inked, will produce one whole page or several pages of printed matter at a time. (2) A printed illustration, usually of high quality and produced on special paper, tipped or bound into a publication; when so printed, plates are numbered separately from other illustrations.

point. (1) The basic unit of type measurement—0.0138 inch (approximately one seventy-second of an inch). (2) A unit used in measuring paper products employed in printing and binding—0.001 inch.

Portable Document Format. See PDF.

portrait. Having a greater dimension in length than in width, as with an image or a publication. Contrast landscape.

positive. A photographic image on paper or film that corresponds to the original subject in values of light and shade.

PostScript (PS). An Adobe programming language used to describe pages (in terms of trim size, font, placement of graphics, and so forth) and to tell output devices how to render the data.

ppi. (1) An abbreviation for pages per inch. A measurement of the bulk of a specific weight of paper. (2) An abbreviation for pixels per inch. A measurement of the resolution of a digital image.

prepress. The processes undertaken by a printing firm between the receipt of the electronic files and other materials from the typesetter and the printing of the publication. These processes include platemaking and makeready.

preprint. Part of a book or journal printed and distributed before publication for promotional purposes. See also offprint.

press run. See print run.

press sheet. Also called printed sheet. In offset printing, a large sheet of paper that emerges from the press with pages printed on both sides, each side printed from a single plate. The sheet must then be folded so that the pages fall into proper sequence. See also imposition; signature.

presswork. The actual printing of a publication, as distinguished from composition, which precedes it, and binding, which follows.

printers error (PE). An error made by the compositor, as distinguished from an alteration made in proof by the author or editor.

print run. The number of copies printed. Also called press run.

process color printing. The halftone reproduction of full-color artwork or photographs using several plates (usually four), each printing a different color. Each plate is made with a halftone screen. Process colors are cyan, magenta, and yellow, plus black (CMYK). See also halftone screen; contrast spot color printing.

proof. The printed copy made from electronic files, plates, negatives, or positives and used to examine and correct a works text, illustrations, and design elements before final printing. A publication may involve several stages of proof; see bluelines; contact proof; digital proof; galley proof; page proof; repro.

PS. See PostScript (PS).

ragged right. Set with an uneven right-hand margin, as with printed lines. Contrast justified.

recto. The front side of a leaf; in a book or journal, a right-hand page. To start recto is to begin on a recto page, as a preface or an index normally does. Contrast verso.

recycled paper. Paper made from a combination of virgin fiber and pre- and postconsumer wastepaper. The proportion of each kind of fiber required to legitimate the label recycled is subject to debate.

register. To print an impression on a sheet in correct relation to other impressions already printed on the same sheet; for example, to superimpose exactly the various color impressions in process color printing. When such impressions are not exactly aligned, they are said to be out of register.

reprint. A publication in its second or subsequent printing, or impression. A reprint may include corrections or new material or both and may be published in a format different from the original printing (for example, as a paperback rather than a clothbound book). The extent of the changes usually determines whether the reprint is considered a new edition of the publication. See also edition.

repro. An abbreviation for reproduction copy. A type of photographic proof generated by the typesetter that reflects the changes made in galley and page proof stages. Many typesetters now provide final laser proof, generated from the electronic files, instead of repro.

resolution. (1) The number of pixels per unit of measure used to form an image. In the United States, image resolution is calculated per inch; the more pixels per inch, the higher the quality of the image. (2) The number of actual dots per unit of measure at which an image or page is output, usually by a printer or an image-setting device. In the United States, output resolution is usually expressed per inch; the more dots per inch, the higher the quality of the output.

reverse out. To manipulate an image of type or of a drawing so that it appears in white surrounded by a solid block of color or black. This technique makes it possible to use the white paper as a color.

right-reading. Having a right-to-left orientation in a photographic image that appears as in the original subject. Wrong-reading is the opposite—that is, a mirror image, in which case the photograph is said to be flopped. The terms are not to be confused with positive and negative, which refer to light values.

river. An undesirable streak of white space running more or less vertically through several lines of type, often the result of excessive spacing between words.

roman. The primary type style (like this), as distinguished from italic.

roman numerals. Numerals formed from traditional combinations of roman letters, either capitals (I, II, III, IV, etc.) or lowercase (i, ii, iii, iv, etc.). Contrast arabic numerals.

rounding. Imparting a convex curve to the spine of a bound publication.

run. (1) A print run. (2) A quantity of material produced in one continuous operation by a paper or cloth mill or printer.

run in. (1) To merge a paragraph or line with the preceding one. (2) To set quoted matter continuously with text rather than setting it off as a block quotation.

running heads. Copy set at the top of printed pages, usually containing the title of the publication or chapter, page number, or other information. Such copy is sometimes placed at the bottom of the pages, in which case it is referred to as running feet.

runover. (1) The continuation of a heading, figure legend, or similar copy onto an additional line. (2) In flush-and-hang material, all lines after the first line of a particular item. (3) Text that is longer than intended, running onto another page, or reset material that is longer than the material it was meant to replace.

saddle stitching. Also called saddle wiring. A method of binding that involves inserting thread or staples through the folds of gathered sheets, as in pamphlets and magazines.

sans serif. A typeface with no serifs (like this). See also serif.

scale. To calculate (after cropping) the proportions and finish size of an illustration and the amount of reduction or enlargement needed to achieve this size.

scan. To produce a digital bitmap of an image (text or graphics) using a device that senses alternating patterns of light and dark and of color. The resolution and scaling percentage of the desired output should be considered before the image is scanned.

screen. A halftone screen; also the dot pattern in the printed image produced by such a screen. See also descreen.

script. (1) Type that imitates handwriting. (2) An abbreviation for manuscript or typescript. (3) A computer program written in an interpreted or scripting language to perform a sequence of tasks.

serif. A short, light line projecting from the top or bottom of a main stroke of a letter; originally, in handwritten letters, a beginning or finishing stroke of the pen. Sans serif typefaces lack serifs.

set. The horizontal dimension of type. The set width of a given character in one typeface may vary from the set width of that character in another typeface.

sewing. Stitching signatures together as part of binding. See also side sewing; Smyth sewing.

SGML. An abbreviation for Standard Generalized Markup Language, an international standard for constructing sets of tags. SGML is not a specific set of tags but a system for defining vocabularies of tags (the names of the tags and what they mean) and using them to encode documents. See also tag.

sheet. A piece of paper (or other material) cut to a specific size, as distinguished from a roll. See also folded and gathered sheets; press sheet; web.

sheet-fed press. A printing press using paper in sheet form. Contrast web-fed press.

side heads. Subheads that (1) are aligned with, or lie partly outside, the margin of the text and are set on a line of their own; (2) lie wholly outside the text margin; or (3) begin a paragraph and are continuous with the text. Subheads of the third sort are sometimes called run-in side heads.

side sewing. In binding, a method of sewing that involves stitching the signatures from the side, close to the spine, before attaching the case. Libraries typically rebind books in this manner. A side-sewn book is more durable than a Smyth-sewn book but will not open flat. See also Smyth sewing.

signature. A press sheet as folded, ready for binding. A signature is usually thirty-two pages but may be only sixteen, eight, or even four pages if the paper stock is very heavy, or sixty-four pages if the paper is thin enough to permit additional folding. The size of the press also affects the size of the signature. See also folded and gathered sheets; press sheet.

slipcase. A protective box in which a book or set of books fits with the spine (or spines) visible.

small caps. An abbreviation for small capitals. Capital letters set at the x-height of a font (LIKE THIS), usually for display.

Smyth sewing. A method of sewing that involves stitching the signatures individually through the fold before binding them. A Smyth-sewn book has the advantage of lying flat when open, unlike a side-sewn or perfect-bound book. See also perfect binding; side sewing.

spec. An abbreviation for specification (plural, spex or specs).

spine. The back of a bound publication; that is, the center panel of the binding, hinged on each side to the two covers, front and back, and visible when the book or journal is shelved. Typically the title of the publication is printed on the spine. Also called the backbone.

spot color printing. The reproduction of isolated graphic elements or display type in a single ink of an exact color. Contrast process color printing.

spread. Two facing pages, a verso and a recto.

stamping. Imprinting the spine of a case and sometimes the front cover with hard metal dies. Stamping may involve ink, foil, or other coloring material; if it does not, it is called blind stamping. See also embossing.

subheads. Headings, or titles, for sections within a chapter or an article. Subheads are usually set in type differing in some way from that of the text; for example, in boldface, all capitals, caps and small caps, or upper- and lowercase italic. See also side heads.

subscript. A small numeral, letter, fraction, or symbol that prints partly below the baseline, usually in mathematical material or chemical formulas.

superscript. A small numeral, letter, fraction, or symbol that prints partly above the x-height, often in mathematical or tabular material.

tag. (1) In SGML, a generic marker used to specify and (when paired) delimit an element in the structure of a document. Adding tags to a manuscript is known as tagging or markup. (2) More informally, a synonym for code. See also code; markup; SGML.

TCF paper. An abbreviation for totally chlorine-free paper. Paper bleached using nonhazardous elements. Contrast ECF paper.

text file. An informal term for a file that contains data encoded using ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) codes and that includes only letters, numerals, punctuation marks, spaces, returns, line feeds, and tabs with no additional formatting. Text files are often referred to as ASCII files, although other kinds of data (such as SGML and PostScript) can also be stored as ASCII files.

text page. Also called text area. The area of a typeset page occupied by the main text block, excluding folios, running heads, and marginalia.

text type. See body type.

thick space. A small space, defined as one-third of an em, added between characters.

thin space. A very small space, defined as one-fifth of an em, added between characters. See also hair space.

thumbnail. A miniature rendition of a page or an image. In electronic publications, a thumbnail is often used to indicate a link to a larger electronic object.

TIFF. An acronym for Tagged Image File Format. A file format developed by Aldus and Microsoft and used to store bitmapped graphics, including scanned line art and color images.

tip-in. A separately printed leaf tipped (pasted) into a book or journal.

trim marks. Marks used to indicate the edges of illustrations or pages in proof.

trim size. The dimensions, in inches, of a full page in a publication, including the margins.

two-up. Having the printing image on the plate duplicated so that two copies of the piece are printed at the same time. The terms three-up, four-up, and so forth are analogous.

typeface. A collection of fonts with common design or style characteristics. A typeface may include roman, italic, boldface, condensed, and other fonts. The various typefaces are designated by name: Baskerville, Caslon, and Times Roman, for example. See also font.

type page. The area of a typeset page occupied by the type image, from the running head to the last line of type on the page or the folio, whichever is lower, and from the inside margin to the outside margin, including any area occupied by side heads.

typesetter. A person, firm, facility, or machine that sets type. Also called compositor.

type styles. See boldface; italic; roman.

unjustified. See ragged right.

uppercase. The capital letters of a font. Contrast lowercase.

verso. The back side of a leaf; in a book or journal, a left-hand page. Contrast recto.

web. A roll of paper (or other material), as distinguished from a sheet.

web-fed press. A printing press using paper in roll form. Contrast sheet-fed press.

Web page. A virtual document delivered via the World Wide Web and viewed in a Web browser.

widow. A short, paragraph-ending line appearing at the top of a page. Widows should be avoided when possible by changes in wording or spacing that either remove the line or lengthen it. Contrast orphan.

World Wide Web. Also called the Web. The Internets most widely used information-retrieval service. The World Wide Web uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to allow users to request and retrieve documents (Web pages and multimedia objects) from other computers anywhere on the Internet.

wrong font (WF). A designation for type that has been set in the wrong typeface, style, or size.

wrong-reading. See right-reading.

WYSIWYG. An acronym for what you see is what you get. Pronounced wizzywig. Text and graphics shown formatted on a computer screen as they will appear when printed.

x-height. In type, a vertical dimension equal to the height of the lowercase letters (such as x) without ascenders or descenders.

XML. An abbreviation for Extensible Markup Language. A subset of the SGML standard, used for structuring documents and data on the Internet. See also SGML.